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ASA Format: How Do I Cite References

PDF Format

American Sociological Association. 2010. American Sociological Association Style Guide. 4th ed. Washington, DC: American
   Sociological Association.
   (Library Call Number: Ref HM 569.A54 2010x)


General Notes: Notes and examples include the applicable section numbers of the ASA Style Guide (e.g., 5.2 =
   Chapter 5, section 2)

  • The American Sociological Association format may be required by your Sociology instructor. This handout covers only the formats for the References section of your research paper.

  • List all the resources you cited in your paper in a separate page titled References. Conversely, all citations in the References page must have also appeared in the body of your paper. 4.3.2

  • Double-space all citations; the examples below are single-spaced only to conserve space. 4.3.2, 6.6.1

  • The first line of each citation begins flush left; if a citation runs more than one line, indent the following line(s) at least three but not more than five spaces.  This is called a “hanging indent.

  • Times New Roman 12-pt. font size is the preferred typeface for ASA publications. 6.6.1. Consult your assignment guidelines for your instructor’s specifications.

  • Arrange the list of all the references you used (books, articles, URLs, and so on) in alphabetical order by the first authors’ last names.

  • The books in print (paper) format listed below can be found in the College Library; you may want to compare the actual book with its citation for clarity.


 Specific Notes on the Format of: 

Author:  List all authors. 4.3.2 pp. 49-50.
First author:  Last Name, First Name Middle Initial.
Second and subsequent authors
: First Name Middle Initial. Last Name.
When there are only two authors or editors, do not use a comma after the name of the first author or editor.  However, place commas between three or more authors’ names. 

If your book has no author but instead lists only the editor(s)’s name(s), use the same author format above. Add a comma after the name of the last editor and then ed. or eds. Appendix 1

 Translator of a Book: Two Options, Appendix 1

1.   The translator(s)’s name(s) appears after the complete title in the following format:  Translated by Translator1,
and Translator3 (names not inverted, translators’ initials only for first/middle names).

2.   If the title is a well-known work or contains the name of the author, you can place the translator’s name where the
author’s name would normally appear in the citation.

Title:  Complete Title and Subtitle in Italics
Capitalize the first word in the title and subtitle, proper nouns, and all words except prepositions, articles, and coordinating conjunctions. 2.3

Place Published: City   p. xiii
Use the state abbreviation only if the location of the city is not clear; well-known locations (e.g., New York, Chicago, Los Angeles) do not require the state name.  If the publisher name includes the state name, you do not need to add the state abbreviation to the city of publication (e.g., Champaign: University of Illinois Press)

Use City, Country if published outside the U.S, e.g., Oxford.

DOI: Digital Object Identifier  pp. 48-49, 60, 101

  • A typical journal article nowadays is assigned a DOI upon publication. It is a unique identifier (like a person’s Social Security Number) and provides a persistent link to its location on the Internet if the journal is part of an electronic database or digital network.  ASA recommends that you supply an article’s DOI, when available, for online articles or chapters.
  • The DOI is usually found at the very top of the first page of an online scholarly article or book chapter that’s in .pdf format.  It is formatted as: doi:10.xxxx/xxxx-xxxx.
  • Copy the DOI from the online article and paste it at the end of the citation.

Text Box: If You Used the Entire Book for Your Research



Author(s) or Editor(s). Year published. Title of Book.  Additional information specific to the book, if any). Place Published: Publisher.

No Author:

Merriam-Webster’s Collegiate Dictionary. 1999. 10th ed. Springfield, MA: Merriam-Webster.

Single Author:

Note that works by the same author are listed in chronological order of publication.  pp. 49-50

Esquith, Rafe. 2003. There Are No Shortcuts. New York: Anchor Books.

Esquith, Rafe. 2007. Teach like Your Hair’s on Fire: The Methods and Madness inside Room 56. New York: Viking.

Maass, Vera Sonja. 2009. The Cinderella Test: Would You Really Want the Shoe to Fit? Subtle Ways Women Are Seduced
                   and Socialized into Servitude and Stereotypes.
Santa Barbara, CA: Praeger.


Multiple Authors:

Brook, Timothy, Jerome Bourgon, and Gregory Blue. 2008. Death by a Thousand Cuts. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University

Garson, Arthur, Jr. and Carolyn L. Engelhard. 2007. Health Care Half-Truths: Too Many Myths, Not Enough Reality. Lanham, MD:
                    Rowman & Littlefield Publishers.

Shaw, Kathleen M., Sara Goldrick-Rab, Christopher Mazzeo, and Jerry A. Jacobs. 2006. Putting Poor People to Work: How the
                    Work-first Idea Eroded College Access for the Poor.
New York: Russell Sage Foundation.

Corporate Author:

 American Bar Association. 2009. You and Your Aging Parents: Guide to Legal, Financial, and Health Care Issues. New York:
                    Random House Reference.

American Psychiatric Association. 2000. Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders: DSM-IV-TR. 4th ed., text
                    revision. Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Association.

Edited Collections, Compilations, Translations: (p. 47), Appendix 1
Note: If the editor’s or translator’s name appears in the middle rather than in the beginning of the citation, do not invert that person’s name. Use only the initials for that person’s first and middle names.  

 Christie, John S. and Jose B. Gonzalez, comp. 2006. Latino Boom: An Anthology of U.S. Latino Literature. New York:
                    Pearson Longman.

Garcia, Nasario, trans. 2007. Brujerias: Stories of Witchcraft and the Supernatural in the American Southwest and Beyond.
                    Lubbock: Texas Tech University.

Territo, Leonard and James D. Sewell, eds. 2007. Stress Management in Law Enforcement. 2nd ed. Durham, NC: Carolina
                    Academic Press. 

Twain, Mark. 1967. Mark Twain’s Satires & Burlesques. Edited by F. R. Rogers. Berkeley: University of California Press. 

Zollter, Jurgen and Willi Diez. 2008. Smart: Small Car, Big Deal. Translated by P. L. Albrecht. Minneapolis: Motorbooks. 

E-Books: 5.3.1
Use the same citation format as
that used for the print edition of the book.  Add the date of access and the URL.  

Burger, Arthur Asa. 2002. Video Games: A Popular Cultural Phenomenon. New Brunswick, NJ: Transaction Publishers.
                    Retrieved November 30, 2011 (

 Tanielian, Terri and Lisa H. Jaycox, eds. 2008. Invisible Wounds of War: Psychological and Cognitive Injuries, Their
                    Consequences, and Services to Assist Recovery
. Santa Monica, CA: RAND Corporation. Retrieved
                    January 23, 2012 (

Wexler, Barbara, ed. 2007. Weight in America: Obesity, Eating Disorders, and Other Health Risks. Detroit: Gale. Retrieved
                    September 12, 2011 (

Text Box: If You Used a Chapter or Article from a Book




Author of Article or Chapter. Year the book was published. “Title of Article or Chapter.” Pp. start page-end page in
                    Title of Book. Volume number, Title of Volume (if applicable), edited by Editor(s). Edition (if applicable).
                    Place of Publication: Publisher.

Unsigned article:

“Swastika.” 1997. P. 2517 in Man, Myth and Magic: The Illustrated Encyclopedia of Mythology, Religion, and the Unknown.
Vol. 18, edited by R. Cavendish, C. A. Burland, and B. Innes. New York: Marshall Cavendish.

One or more authors:  p. 47 

Chesney-Lind, Meda. 1995. “Girls, Delinquency, and Juvenile Justice: Toward a Feminist Theory of Young Women’s Crime.”
                    Pp. 71-88 in The Criminal Justice System and Women:
Offenders, Victims, and Workers, edited and compiled
                    by B. R. Price and N. J. Sokoloff. 2nd ed. New York: McGraw-Hill. 

Kanellos, Nicolas. 1992. “Luis Miguel Valdez.” Pp. 281-292 in Dictionary of Literary Biography. Vol. 122, Chicano Writers: Second
edited by F. A. Lomeli and C.R. Shirley. Detroit: Gale Research Inc. 

Maddox, Keith B. and Kristin N. Dukes. 2008. “Social Categorization: How Facial Features Impact Social Judgment.” Pp. 205-233
                    in First Impressions, edited by N. Ambady and J. J. Skowronski. New York: Guilford Press. 

Oberman, Michelle, Leslie Wolf, and Patti Zettler. 2010. “Where Stem Cell Research Meets Abortion Politics: Limits on Buying
                    and Selling Human Oocytes.” Pp. 251-264 in Baby
Markets: Money and the New Politics of Creating Families,
                    edited by M. B. Goodwin. Cambridge, England: Cambridge University Press.  

Thackrah, John Richard. 2004. “Sept. 11, 2001.” Dictionary of Terrorism. London: Routledge.

Chapter or Article in an E-book Retrieved from an Online Database:
Use the chapter/article citation format above.  Add the date you retrieved the chapter or article and the database’s URL.

Gulli, Laith Farid, Nicole Mallory, Judith Sims, Teresa G. Odle, Tish Davidson, and Bryan Richard Cobb. 2011. “Alzheimer’s
                    Disease.” Pp. 167-181 in
Gale Encyclopedia of Medicine. Vol. 1, edited by L. J. Fundukian. 4th ed. Detroit: Gale,
                    2011. Retrieved September 15, 2011 (

Mukhopadhyay, Carol C. and Peter Chua. 2008. “Cultural Racism.” Pp. 377-383 in Encyclopedia of Race and   Racism. Vol. 1,
                    edited by J. H. Moore. Detroit: Macmillan Reference USA. Retrieved September 29, 2012 (


Zawistowski, Stephen. 2008. “Assistance Dogs.” Pp. 183-205 in Companion Animals in Society. New York: Delmar Learning. Retrieved April 2, 2011   (                                                                                                                                                                                           

Chapter or Article in an E-book Retrieved from the Web
Use the same chapter/article citation format above.  Add the date you retrieved the chapter or article and its full URL. 

Humphrey, Craig R. and Tammy L. Lewis. 2002. “Environmental Sociology: What’s New?” In Environment, Energy, and Society:
                    A New Synthesis
, by C. R. Humphrey, T. L. Lewis, and F. H. Buttel. Belmont, CA: Wadsworth Thomson Learning.
                    Retrieved July 28, 2009 (       . 

Text Box:  If You Used Articles or Web Sites



Magazine and Newspaper Articles in Print (Paper) Format: Appendix 4
Author or Institution, if known. Year published. “Title of Article.” Title of Periodical, date, all page numbers.  

Flanagan, Caitlin. 2010. “Love, Actually: How Girls Reluctantly Endure the Hookup Culture.” The Atlantic, June, pp. 90-100.

Guynn, Jessica. 2011. “Where Money Is No Object.” Los Angeles Times, June 18, pp. A1, A13.

Meacham, Jon. 2009. “The End of Christian America.” Newsweek, April 13, pp. 34-38.

Magazine or Newspaper Articles from an Online Database:
Use the article citation format above.  Add the date retrieved and the URL for the online database.

Carpenter, Dave. 2008. “Making Room in Homes, Budgets for Raising Grandkids.” Houston Chronicle, September 15, p. 1.
                    Retrieved March 30, 2009 (


"Maternal Depression Increases Risk for Same Disorder in Children." 2003. Women's Health Weekly, April 3, p. 21.  Retrieved
                    October 21, 2011 (

Articles from the Web Version of a Magazine or Newspaper: Appendix 12

Author, if known. Year published. “Title of Article.” Title of Periodical, Date published.

        Date retrieved (complete URL).      

Cave, Damien. 2011. “Crossing over, and Over.” New York Times, October 2. Retrieved October 29, 2011 

Magnuson, Danielle. 2011. “Making Peace with Barbie.” Utne Reader, September 23.  Retrieved November 6, 2011

Journal Article in Print (Paper) Format: 4.3.2

Author or Institution. Year published. “Title of Article.” Title of Journal Volume number

                        (issue number):start page-end page.

Campos, Rodrigo. 2008. “Considerations for Studying Father Involvement in Early Childhood among Latino Families.” Hispanic
                    Journal of Behavioral Sciences

Dellasega, Cheryl A. 2009. “Bullying Among Nurses.” American Journal of Nursing 109(1):52-58.

Krumrei, Elizabeth J., Annette Mahoney, and Kenneth I. Pargament. 2009. “Divorce and the Divine: The Role of Spirituality in
                    Adjustment to Divorce.” Journal of Marriage and Family 71(2):373-383.

Roberts, J. Timmons, Bradley C. Parks, Michael J. Tierney, and Robert L. Hicks. 2009. “Has Foreign Aid Been Greened?”
                    Environment 51(1):8-19.

Vaquera, Elizabeth and Grace Kao. 2005. “Private and Public Displays of Affection Among Interracial and Intra-racial Adolescent
                    Couples.” Social Science Quarterly 86(2):484-508.

Journal Article Retrieved from an Online Database:
Use the citation format for a journal article.  Add the date retrieved and, in parentheses, the URL of the online database. If a DOI is available (see p. 2), use the DOI instead of the database’s URL.

Krumrei, Elizabeth J., Annette Mahoney, and Kenneth I. Pargament. 2009. “Divorce and the Divine: The Role of Spirituality in
                    Adjustment to Divorce.” Journal of Marriage and Family 71(2):373-383. Retrieved July 7, 2011

Rhoades, Galena K., Scott M. Stanley, and Howard J. Markman. 2009. “The Pre-engagement Cohabitation Effect: A Replication
                    and Extension of Previous Findings.” Journal of Family
Psychology 23(1):107-111. doi: 10.1037/a0014358.


Whitty, Monica and Laura-Lee Quigley. 2008. “Emotional and Sexual Infidelity Offline and in Cyberspace.” Journal of
                    Marital and Family Therapy
34(4):461-468. Retrieved February 19, 2012 (

Journal Article Retrieved from an Online-Only Journal: 5.3.3
Use the citation format for a journal article.  Add date retrieved and, in parentheses, the complete URL for the journal article.
If a DOI is available (see p. 2), use the DOI instead of the article’s URL.

Batt, Sarah. 2009. “Human Attitudes Towards Animals in Relation to Species Similarity to Humans: A Multivariate Approach.”
                    Bioscience Horizons 2(2):180-190. Retrieved March 30, 2009

Ellison, Nicole B., Charles Steinfeld, and Cliff Lampe. 2007. “The Benefits of Facebook ‘Friends’: Social Capital and College
                    Students’ Use of Online Social Network Sites.” Journal of Computer-Mediated Communication 12:1143-1168.

Fauchon, Christina. 2004. “Counterpoint: The Case Against Profiling.” International Social Science Review Fall-Winter. Retrieved
                    November 2, 2010 (;col1).

Web Sites: Acceptable Formats  5.3.4

Individual or Corporate Author(s). Year published or last updated/revised. “Title of Document or Web Page.” Place
                    Published, if known: Publisher. Date Retrieved (complete URL).

Individual or Corporate Author(s). Year published or last updated/revised. “Title of Document or Web Page.” Title of
                    Report or Web Site
. Place Published, if known: Publisher. Date Retrieved (complete URL).

“Affirmative Action.” 2009. Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy. Palo Alto, CA: Stanford University. Retrieved May 23, 2009

Armstrong, Walter. 2007. “Brutality in Blue.” Amnesty International Magazine. New York: Amnesty International USA. Retrieved
                    April 4, 2012 (

Newman, Stephen A. 2004. “Grandparent Visitation Claims: Assessing the Multiple Harms of Litigation to Families and Children.”
                    Public Interest Law Journal 13:21-49. Retrieved April 25, 2011

Salzman, Brock Alan. N.d. “A Psychological Argument for Abstinence and Commitment: Implications for Sex Education and
                    Counseling.” Spokane,WA: Teen-Aid, Inc. Retrieved March 30, 2011 (

Schooner, Steven L. and Collin D. Swan. Forthcoming. “Dead Contractors: The Un-examined Effect of Surrogates on the Public’s
                    Casualty Sensitivity.Journal of National Security Law and
Policy. Retrieved September 22, 2011

Temke, Mary and Emily Douglas. 2006. “The Effects of Divorce on Children.” University of New Hampshire Cooperative Extension.
                    Retrieved June 2, 2011 (

U.S. Department of State. Bureau of International Narcotics and Law Enforcement Affairs. 2009. “Merida Initiative: Myth vs. Fact.”
                    Washington, DC: Government Printing Office. Retrieved August 10, 2009

Blog Entries 5.3.5
Author. Year Published. “Name of Post.” Blog Publisher. Name of Blog, Date Posted. Date Retrieved (complete URL). 

Harrington, Brooke. 2010. “Culture and Consumption: Or, Bourdieu Goes Grocery Shopping.” The Society Pages. Economic
Blog, May 18. Retrieved October 21, 2011 ( 

Irving, Helene. 2011. “Free Speech or Hate Speech?” Open Society Foundations. Open Society Foundations Blog, July 13.
                    Retrieved July 17, 2011

Text Box: Government Publications



Government Publications in Paper Format: 4.4.2
Author, Editor, Compiler or Issuing Government Agency. Year published. Title of Publication. Name of Series or
                    Collection. Volume or Report number. Place of Publication: Government Agency Publishing the Work

Berglas, Nancy, Claire Brindis, and Joel Cohen. 2003. Adolescent Pregnancy and Childbearing in California. CRB 03-007.
                    Sacramento, CA: California State Library, California Research Bureau.

State of California. Community Care Licensing Division. 2004. Manual of Policies and Procedures, Community Care Licensing
                    Division, Child Care Center, Division 12, Chapter 1: Child Care Center General Licensing Requirements, Title 22,
                    Division 12
. Sacramento: State of California, Health and Human Services Agency, Department of Social Services.

U.S. Department of Justice. Federal Bureau of Investigation. 2004. Crime in the United States, 2003: Uniform Crime Reports.
                    Washington, DC: Government Printing Office.

U.S. Executive Office of the President. 2006. The Federal Response to Hurricane Katrina: Lessons Learned. Washington, D.C.:
                    White House.

U.S. National Commission on the BP Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill and Offshore Drilling. 2011. Deep Water: The Gulf Oil Disaster
                    and the Future of Offshore Drilling: Report to the
President. Washington, DC: Government Printing Office.


Government Publications on the Web:  p. 58
Author, Editor, Compiler or Issuing Government Agency. Year published.
“Title of Article, if available.” Title of
. Other publication information as needed. Date Retrieved (complete URL).


Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations. 2006. State of World Aquaculture. Retrieved December 1, 2011

U.S. Department of Labor. Wage and Hour Division. 2011. “Child Labor Regulations, Orders and Statements of Interpretation;
                    Child Labor Violations–-Civil Money Penalties.” Federal Register
Proposed Rules 76(171):54836-54885. Retrieved
                    September 29, 2011 (!documentDetail;D=WHD-2011-0001-0001).

Acceptable Alternatives for an Agency Name: p. 58

U.S. Bureau of the Census. 2009. Statistical Abstract of the United States. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

U.S. Department of Commerce. Bureau of the Census. 2009. Statistical Abstract of the United States. Washington, DC:
                    Government Printing Office.

  Text Box: If You Used Audiovisual Materials



Video Recordings: 5.4.1

Director, if available, or Publisher. Year Released. Title of Video. Format. Place of Publication: Publisher.

McPhee, Larkin. 2004. Dying to Be Thin. DVD. Boston: WGBH Video.

Milgram, Stanley. 1969. Obedience. VHS. University Park, PA: Pennsylvania State University.

Spielberg, Steven. 1994. Schindler’s List. VHS. Universal City, CA: MCA Universal Home Video.

Recordings Obtained from the Web: 5.4.2, 5.4.4
Director, if available, or Publisher. Year Released or Uploaded. “Title of Recording.”
                        Name of Web site, if available. Date Retrieved (complete URL).

CenterforHumanReprod. 2011. “Infertility Treatment.” YouTube Web site. Retrieved March 3, 2012

Willer, Robb. 2010. “Lecture 17 Sociology150A|Spring 2010|UC Berkeley.” Webcast.Berkeley Audio Podcast. Retrieved
                    June 30, 2010 (
Text Box:  Interviews and Personal Communications



 Acceptable Formats: 5.3.6

Interviews, e-mail messages, conversations and other personal communications are generally cited only in the text or notes, not in the References list.  You may choose to include in the References page those specific communications that are critical to your argument or are frequently cited in the text of your paper.

The following format is suggested by The Chicago Manual of Style 15th edition (2003), on which the ASA Style Guide (2010) is based.

Name of Interviewee or Respondent. Year Communicated. Form of your (author’s) communication with the  
                    interviewee, place (if applicable), Date Interviewed or  Communicated.

Bennett, Carla. 2009. E-mail message to author, June 1.

Martinez, Ted. 2008. Interview by author, Whittier, CA, December 17.

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